Boltzmann Distribution Function

The total internal energy of an object is the sum of the average energy of each of the atoms that make up the object. Hence, at certain temperature , it is possible that some atoms are more energetic than others.(These atoms occupy a high energy level than others)

To find the ratio of number of atoms at a higher energy level Ex to the number of atoms at a lower energy level Eo:

$\frac{N_{x}}{N_{o}} = e^{ – \frac{E_{x} – E_{o}}{kT}}$, where

Nx is the number of atoms with energy Ex
No is the number of atoms with energy Eo
k is the Boltzmann constant: 1.381 x 10-23 J/K
T is the temperature in K


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