O Level Physics Formula List

Electricity and D.C. Circuits

$\epsilon = \frac{W}{Q}$

$V = \frac{W}{Q}$

$I = \frac{Q}{t}$

$R = \frac{V}{I}$ (IMPT: It’s ratio, NOT gradient)

$R = \frac{\rho L}{A}$

Series: $R_{total} = R_{1} + R_{2} + …$

Parallel: $\frac{1}{R_{total}} = \frac{1}{R_{1}} + \frac{1}{R_{2}} + …$

$P = VI = I^{2}R = \frac{V^{2}}{R}$

$E = Pt = (VI)t$

Electromagnetic force and Electromagnetic Induction:


$\frac{V_{p}}{V_{s}} = \frac{N_{p}}{N_{s}}$

$V_{p}I_{p} = V_{s}I_{s}$

Operation of transformer:

  • Alternating current supplied to primary coil
  • Alternating current causes iron core to magnetise and magnetic field to change
  • Magnetic fields follow iron core and link to secondary coil
  • Hence, emf is induced in the secondary coil by electromagnetic induction due to the changing magnetic fields

Left hand rule for motor:


Right hand rule for generator/dynamo:


Right hand grip rule: (To determine direction of magnetic field/current)


Ways to increase emf in solenoid:

  1. Use a stronger magnet
  2. Increase the speed of moving the magnet
  3. Increase the number of turns in the coil

Ways to increase emf in a.c. generator:

  1. Decrease distance between magnet and coil
  2. Use a stronger magnet
  3. Increase frequency of rotation of the coil (Double freq. = double max. e.m.f. and halving T)
  4. Increase number of turns in the coil (Double no. of turns = double max e.m.f.)

Radioactivity & The Nuclear Atom

Half life:  (n is number of half-life)

$$\frac{N_{\text{final}}}{N_{\text{initial}}} = \left( \frac{1}{2} \right)^{n}$$

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