Show/Hide Sub-topics (A Level)
- The ɑ-particle Scattering Experiment
- Simple Model of The Atom
- Atomic Mass
- Mass-energy Relation
- The Mass Defect
- Binding Energy
- Binding Energy Per Nucleon And Nuclear Stability
- Nuclear Reactions
- Nuclear Fission
- Nuclear Fusion
- Radioactive Decay
- Alpha Particles
- Beta Particles
- Gamma Rays
- Comparision of Alpha Particles, Beta Particles And Gamma Rays
- Background Radiation
- Activity, Half-life And Decay constant
- Effects of Radiation On Living Organism
- Geiger-Muller Tube/Counter
- Uses of Radiation
- Safety Precautions When Being Around Radioactive Substances (You Are Here!)
Handling Radioactive Materials
- Reduce the time of contact with radioactive materials to a minimum.
- Solid sources are most easily handled. They should be manipulated remotely. Example: Using tongs or in a glove-box.
- Any ingestion of radioactive material should be avoided. For example, radioactive particles lodged in lungs are much more dangerous and harmful than if they were outside the body.
- Radiation workers are given protective clothing and regular tests to monitor the dosage they receive.
- Limit the amount of radiation received from X-rays equipment.
- The penetrating powers of the different types of radiation gives a clue to safe practice. Pure alpha particles present little hazard when enclosed in a container; however since most alpha sources also emit gamma radiation, lead-lined containers are needed.
- In general, keep all radioactive materials in lead containers when not in use.
- Radioactive waste products must be quickly and safely disposed of. They can be encased in concrete and sealed in steel tanks and then buried underground.
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