This post contains all the important formulas that you need for A Level Physics. (Equivalent to AP Physics) If you do not recognise any of the terms listed here, you should go review the respective topic.

Please drop me a comment if I missed out any particular important definitions.

**Measurement:**

**Random errors** are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities differ from the mean value with different magnitudes and directions.

**Systematic errors** are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction.

**Accuracy** is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value.

**Precision** is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with each other.

**Thermal Physics:**

The** internal energy** is a function of state and the total microscopic kinetic and potential energies of the particlesÂ composing the system.

The **specific latent heat of fusion**, L_{f} , is defined as the amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase without any change in temperature

The **specific latent heat of vaporization**, L_{v}, is defined as the amount of heat required per unit mass to change a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase without any change in temperature.

**First law of thermodynamics** state that internal energy is a function of state and the increase in internal energy is equal to the sum of the heat supplied to system and work done on system.

**Kinematics:**

**Speed** is the rate of change of distance traveled with respect to time.

**Velocity **is the rate of change of its displacement with respect to time.

**Acceleration** of an object is the rate of change of its velocity with respect to time.

**Forces And Dynamics:**

**Normal contact force** is a force perpendicular to the surface experienced by a body when it is in physical contact with something else.

**Hookeâ€™s Law** states that within the limit of proportionality, the extension produced in a material is directly proportional to the load applied.

The **principle of moments** states that, when an object is in equilibrium, the sum of anticlockwise moments about any point equals the sum of clockwise moments about the same point.

The **moment of a force** is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of action of the force.

A **couple** is a pair of forces, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, whose lines of motion do not coincide.

**Centre of gravity** is the point on an object through which the entire weight of the object may be considered to act.

**Stability** of an object refers to its ability to return to its original position after it has been displaced from that position.

**Pressure** is force acting per unit area.

**Upthrust/buoyancy force** is an upward force on a body produced by the surrounding fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas) in which it is fully or partially immersed, due to the pressure difference of the fluid between the top and bottom of the object.

**Archimedesâ€™ Principle** states that the upthrust experienced by an object partially or entirely immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

**Newtonâ€™s first law of motion** states that a body will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless an external resultant force acts on it.

**Newtonâ€™s second law** states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on it and the change takes place in the direction of the force.

**Newtonâ€™s third law** states that: If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts a force of equal magnitude but in the opposite direction on body A.

The **principle of conservation of momentum** states that the total momentum of a system of objects remains constant provided no resultant external force acts on the system.

**Work, Energy And Power:**

**Work** is the mechanical transfer of energy to a system or from a system by an external force on it.

**Heat** is the non-mechanical transfer of energy from the environment to the system or from the system to the environment because of a temperature difference between the two.

The **principle of conservation of energy** states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed in any process.

**Gravitational Potential Energy** is defined as the amount of work done in order to raise the body to the height h from a reference level.

**Power** is defined as the rate of work done or energy converted with respect to time.

**Circular Motion:**

**Angular displacement**, Î¸ is the angle subtended at centre of a circle by an arc of equal length to the radius.

**Angular velocity**, Ï‰ is the rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time.

The **period** T of an object in circular motion is the time taken for the object to make one complete revolution.

The **frequency** f of an object in circular motion is the number of complete revolutions made by the object per unit time.

**Waves:**

**Displacement** is the distance moved by the particle from its equilibrium position.

The **amplitude** of a wave is the maximum displacement of the particle from its equilibrium position.

The **wavelength** is the distance between 2 successive points on a wave which are in phase with one another.

The **period** is the time taken for a particle on the wave to complete one oscillation.

The **frequency** of a wave is the number of complete oscillations that pass through a given point in 1 second. (Units: Hertz(Hz) or s^{-1})

A **compression** is a region where particles are close to one another. (High pressure)

A **rarefaction** is a region where the particles are further apart. (Low pressure)

**Phase Difference** (Ï†) between two particles or two waves tells us how much a particle (or wave) is in front or behind another particle (or wave).

**Intensity** of a wave is the rate of transfer of energy per unit area perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave.

**Oscillations:**

**Periodic motion** is the regular, repetitive motion of a body which continually retraces its path at regular intervals.

**Period** T of a periodic motion is the time to make one complete cycle.

**Frequency** f of a periodic motion is the number of cycles per unit time.

**Angular frequency** of a periodic motion is the rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time.

**Displacement** of an object is the distance of the oscillating particle from its equilibrium position at any instant.

**Amplitude** of a periodic motion is the magnitude of the maximum displacement of the oscillating particle from the equilibrium position.

**Simple Harmonic Motion** (SHM) is defined as the oscillatory motion of a particle whose acceleration a is always directed towards a fixed point and is directly proportional to its displacement x from that fixed point but in the opposite direction to the displacement.

**Damping** is the process whereby energy is taken from the oscillating system.

**Natural frequency** of the system is the frequency at which it will vibrate freely.

venkey scribbled

its simply formate nd reading easy

Anna scribbled

Can you add impulse, momentum, equilibrium and force?

Hamza Javed scribbled

The product of force and very short interval of time in which the force is applied is called impulse.

Hamza Javed scribbled

The product of mass and velocity of body is called momentum.

iqbal ahmed khan scribbled

Good effort, helpful to many. Keep it up

Marco genius scribbled

u av done a good job…

chaitanya scribbled

small and useful notes..helps a lot….Thank You!

nagasri scribbled

very helpful guys

thanks for presenting this

mark gorginho scribbled

i would like also to be given laws especially about heat

ogadinma scribbled

good job guys