## Systematic Error & Random Error

Systematic Errors Systematic errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction. Example of systematic error Zero error Parallax error – viewing consistently from the wrong angle for all readings Environmental conditions – Background radiation in the measurement of radioactive decay. Systematic errors cannot be …

## Worked Examples for Work

These worked examples will help to solidify your understanding towards the concept of work and work done. Worked Example 1: Pushing A Box A boy pushes a box across a rough horizontal floor. He exerts 5 N to move it by 2 m. What is the work done by the boy? Worked Example 2: Pulling A Wagon A boy pulls …

## Worked Examples for Energy

These worked examples will help to solidify your understanding towards the concept of conservation of energy and energy conversion. Worked Example 1: Speeding Projectile A projectile of mass 0.02 kg travels at a speed of $1200 \text{ m s}^{-1}$. Calculate its kinetic energy. Worked Example 2: Lifting Object An object with a mass of 5 kg is lifted vertically through …

## Case Study 2: Energy Conversion for A Bouncing Ball

Consider a ball with mass $m$ dropped from a height of $h_{\text{initial}}$ m from the ground. Stage 1: Initially, the ball will be at height $h$ m above the ground and will have the following properties: Gravitational Potential Energy of $mgh_{\text{initial}}$ Kinetic Energy: 0 Since the ball will be falling, the gravitational potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy …

## Case Study 1: Energy Conversion for An Oscillating Ideal Pendulum

Consider an ideal pendulum (as shown in the diagram below). Note that ideal pendulum means that there is no energy lost to overcome air resistance and friction during oscillation. When a pendulum is displaced to one side (Point A), it gains gravitational potential energy. The amount of gravitational potential energy gained will be $mgh$, where h is the height difference …

## Equations of Motion

Important Kinematics Equations! (Memorize them!) These equations are known as equations of motion. They are only valid if the acceleration is CONSTANT (UNIFORM acceleration). $$v = u + at \tag{1}$$ $$s = ut + \frac{1}{2} at^{2} \tag{2}$$ $$s = \frac{1}{2} (u + v) t \tag{3}$$ $$v^{2} = u^{2} + 2as \tag{4}$$ ,Where $$v = \text{final velocity}$$ u = \text{ initial …

## Parallax Error, Zero Error, Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy & Precision A measuring equipment can give precise but not accurate measurements, accurate but not precise measurements or neither precise nor accurate measurements. Accuracy is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value. When there is high accuracy (accurate shots), there will be small systematic error The accuracy of a reading can …