UY1: Special Relativity For Undergrads

This section deals with Special Relativity at a level slightly higher than pre-university and is tailored towards first year Physics majors. Content: Principle Of Relativity Einstein’s Postulates of Special Relativity & Inertia Frames Gallilean Coordinate Transformation Back To University Year 1 Notes

UY1: Standing Electromagnetic Waves

The superposition principle holds for electromagnetic waves just as for electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves can be reflected off the surface of a conductor or a dielectric. The superposition of an incident wave and a reflected wave forms a standing wave. Suppose a sheet of a perfect conductor (zero resistivity) is placed in the yz-plane and a linearly polarized …

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UY1: Energy & Momentum In Electromagnetic Waves

In a region of empty space where $\vec{E}$ and $\vec{B}$ fields are present, the total energy density $u$ is given by: $$u = \frac{1}{2} \epsilon_{0} E^{2} + \frac{1}{2 \mu_{0}} B^{2}$$ For electromagnetic waves in a vacuum, $$\begin{aligned} B &= \frac{E}{c} \\ &= \sqrt{\epsilon_{0} \mu_{0}} E \end{aligned}$$ It follows that: $$u = \epsilon_{0} E^{2}$$ In a vacuum, the energy density associated …

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UY1: Electromagnetic Spectrum & Sinusoidal EM Plane Waves

Every accelerated charge radiates electromagnetic energy – electromagnetic waves. Electric and magnetic disturbances radiate away from the source. Electromagnetic waves require no medium. (What’s “waving” in an electromagnetic wave are the time-varying electric and magnetic fields. The wave travels in vacuum with a definite and unchanging speed $c$ – the speed of light. Hertz produced pulses of electromagnetic radiation by generating …

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UY1: Resonance & Power In A.C. Circuits

Resonance In A.C. Circuits Suppose we connect an A.C. source with constant voltage amplitude V but adjustable angular frequency $\omega$ across an L-R-C series circuit. The current that appears in the circuit has the same angular frequency $\omega$ as the source and a current amplitude $I = \frac{V}{Z}$, where the impedance of the L-R-C series circuit is $Z = \sqrt{R^{2} …

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UY1: L-R-C Series Circuit With A.C.

Consider a series circuit containing a resistor R, an inductor L, and a capacitor C, through which there is a sinusoidal current, $i = I \cos{\omega t}$. We will consider the steady-state condition. We will look at the voltage across resistor: $$\begin{aligned} v_{R} &= iR \\ &= IR \cos{\omega t} \\ &= V_{R} \cos{\omega t} \end{aligned}$$ Voltage across inductor: $$\begin{aligned} …

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UY1: Mechanics

This section deals with Mechanics at a level slightly higher than pre-university and is tailored towards first year Physics majors. This is a very simple introduction to Classical Mechanics. Basics Basics For Mechanics Kinematics 1-D Kinematics 2-D Kinematics Newton’s Law Of Motion Newton’s Laws Of Motion (Recap of Forces And Dynamics (JC/High School) ) Friction Resistive Force Uniform Circular Motion & Non-uniform Circular Motion …

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