When a pure solid is heated, its temperature rises until it starts to melt. At its melting point, any additional heat supplied will not change its temperature. When the pure solid becomes a pure liquid (a change in state), further heating will again raise the temperature of the liquid until it starts to boil.
At its boiling point, any additional heat supplied causes boiling without any temperature rise. When the pure liquid becomes a pure gas (a change in state), further heating will again raise the temperature of the gas.
Therefore, at particular temperatures, heating changes the state of the substance. Melting and boiling are such processes. Similarly, at almost the same particular temperatures for the same substance, cooling can also change its states. Condensing and freezing are such processes.
The properties of the molecules of the substances vary with the amount of thermal energy they possess.
Important: During the changing of state, the temperature of the gas/liquid/solid is constant.
1 thought on “Change Of State”
Significant Findings —
After thinking about lightning, and sparks in general, I looked for an explanation more believable than just friction. I accumulated similar electrostatic events and empirically sought something that might explain a common operative for a somewhat related outcome.
Lightning bolts are nature’s way of balancing the charge distribution. Volcano’s lightning, scuffing rugs (static), steam cleaning container ships and tanks (sparks), locomotive sparks about the steam piston (Old Sparky), platinum (catalyst), Horatio engine, adhesive tape, frozen lake flash, and earthquakes. Storm clouds polarity can be positive or negative depending whether hail is forming or melting. Water vapor condenses into liquid water and then ice. Cavitation, electrolysis on propellers (change of state in the water to vapor) extra electrons erode the propeller. Adhesive tape flashes when pulled in the dark.
The eureka moment:
In the above examples, the common element is a change of state. — It appears that the molecules freely move about in the gaseous state until the gas liquefies. Furthermore, the molecules move much less in the solid state. So, why is this so?– Covalent bonding? Perhaps, there is a ‘glue’ not measured? If electrons, and there are more than enough, were the ‘glue’ this puzzle piece could complete the picture. Often the solution is not in the box. Even the rug microscopically melts on the trips of the fibers except when wet. When earthquakes occur, the animals take notice, not because of the sound (it’s often farther than the speed of sound from them) but they feel the electrostatic field from the fracturing and movement of the earth’s friction against itself (melting). There is often an aurora in the atmosphere (New Zeland). For matter to change state, electrons are added resulting in vapor changing to liquid and the cloud becomes positively charged inducing lightning (electrons) from the earth traveling up to satisfy the polarity imbalance. When this change of state is gradually, the charge generated dissipates. Additionally, when more electrons are added, the liquid becomes solid. All this occurs for each change at the correct pressure and temperature. The removal of electrons reverses the state of molecules to the previous state. Platinum enhances this transformation in a chemical process because of its superior conductivity and chemical inertness. The volcanic eruption of gas and liquid changes state and eventually becomes solid. Cavation, state change, yielding electrolysis on propellers is explained more fully with this insight. Tanker cleaning with steam can ignite a flammable cargo. Sometimes, a frozen lake will flash when it cracks. Adhesive tape reveals a lightning flash where it pulls from the roll. Our understanding of change of state is incomplete. When the electron activity is considered, the believability of change of state is more robust. When lightning in a thunderstorm is contemplated, what is happening – where did the electrons go — how many ingredients are involved? Lightning is not part of the storm, but, is manufactured as a result of the interaction of the ingredients. Therein is the missing puzzle piece. How is the manufacturing occurring? The static buildup from friction, with the earth or among the ingredients, is weak, at most, and perhaps altogether unbelievable – Obviously not evident. Perhaps we are like fish and don’t know what it is like to feel wet? The free electrons are imbedded to make the change of state proceed from gaseous to solid and the cloud exhibits a positive charge. The converse is true. This is a better understanding of why what’s happening than previously explained with friction. ©
1. The atmosphere is composed of many electrons. When the planet rotates, the right-hand rule is applied and a north and south pole is formed
2. The solar system can demonstrate these as magnetic poles will form on the planets consistent with their direction of rotation, or, none at all if there is no atmosphere or rotation. ©
Joseph R. Bolze