## Gravitational Acceleration & Terminal Velocity

Gravitational Acceleration, $g$ Gravitational acceleration, often denoted as ($g$), is a fundamental concept in physics that describes the rate at which objects accelerate towards the center of the Earth when the only force acting upon them is gravity. Understanding Gravitational Acceleration Misconceptions and Clarifications Air Resistance & Terminal Velocity When objects fall through the air, they encounter air resistance or …

## Systematic Error & Random Error

Systematic Errors Systematic errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction. Example of systematic error Systematic errors cannot be eliminated by averaging or by statistical means. Ways To Avoid Systematic Errors Systematic errors can be avoided by Random Errors Random errors are errors of …

## Case Study 2: Energy Conversion for A Bouncing Ball

Bouncing Ball Consider a ball with mass $m$ dropped from a height of $h_{\text{initial}}$ m from the ground. Stage 1: Initially, the ball will be at height $h$ m above the ground and will have the following properties: Stage 2: Just before the ball touches the ground, the ball will have the following properties: Stage 3: The ball will rebound. …

## Case Study 1: Energy Conversion For An Oscillating Ideal Pendulum

Ideal Pendulum Consider an ideal pendulum (as shown in the diagram below). Note that ideal pendulum means that there is no energy lost to overcome air resistance and friction during oscillation. When a pendulum is displaced to one side (Point A), it gains gravitational potential energy. The amount of gravitational potential energy gained will be $mgh$, where h is the …

## Equations of Motion

Kinematics Equations Of Motion The equations we’re discussing are fundamental to understanding motion, specifically when dealing with constant or uniform acceleration. Known as the equations of motion, they form the cornerstone of kinematics, a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies without considering the forces that cause them to move. They …

## Parallax Error, Zero Error, Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy & Precision A measuring equipment can give precise but not accurate measurements, accurate but not precise measurements or neither precise nor accurate measurements. Accuracy is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value. Precision is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with each other. It is a …

## Magnetism & Electromagnetism

This topic covers “Magnetism & Electromagnetism” of O Level Physics. (Equivalent to American high school diploma) If this is too basic for you, you can try the more advanced version here (Electromagnetism) and here (Electromagnetic Induction). Simple Phenomena Of Magnetism Applications of the magnetic effect of a current: Force on Conductor in a Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Induction Quiz